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Wednesday, 27 August 2008

"cyanide " The mill tailings of Kolar gold mines

B. R. Krishna and F. H. Gejji (Curr.
Sci., 2001, 80, 1475–1476) have highlighted
the environmental pollution
being caused by the dumping of the mill
tailing (sand) in the Kolar gold mines
area. It is true that there are about 32
million tonnes of this sand, which
makes up the 15 dumps spread out
along 8-km long distance in the mine
area. These sands have been causing
considerable environmental health hazards
to the people of the Kolar gold
field. During the months of June/July
when the weather is dry and windy,
these sands are carried eastward to
Robertsonpet and Andersonpet areas,
over a distance of 3 km. The finer particles
get air-borne and finally settle
down up to a radial distance of 4 km.
With the onset of monsoon, the rainwater
carries these sands further down
onto tank beds.

These sands are essentially
made up of grains of quartz and
amphibole minerals, with a fineness
varying the <>

The authors’ apprehension that these
sands cause health hazards like silicosis,
lung cancer, etc. is not based on
facts. According to Gowda and Shenoi1
of M/s Bharat Gold Mines Medical Department,
‘although the gold mines are
100 years old, so far there is no reported
occurrence of silicosis in any of the
employees of the Kolar gold mines.
They further confirm that silicosis, as
seen in the famous Rand gold mines of
South Africa, does not exist in the Kolar
gold field. However, a form of pneumoconiosis
(lung disease) is commonly
found in underground mine workers and

Table 1. Major constituents of sand in
the Kolar gold mines area

Constituent -------Light- coloured ----Dark- coloured

Calcium oxide --------8.4 ---------------7 .6
Silica -------------------56.0 --------------51.8
Aluminium oxide ----11.9 --------------8.2
Ferrous oxide -------10.2 --------------18.9
Magnesium oxide ---8.6---------------- 6.3
Loss of ignition-------2.0---------------- 3.9

their most recent study (1973–1978) on
5893 workers has shown a decline in
the prevalence rate of pneumoconiosis.
The mill tailings have so far not caused
any respiratory health hazards or skin
diseases or allergies to the people of
Kolar gold field area. At best, these
sands can be considered as a nuisance
and should be ignored as innocuous.
As for the possible industrial use of
these mill tailings, so far all attempts
made in the past have proved to be either
futile or uneconomical. In the early
fifties, the British engineers mixed
these tailing sands with Portland cement
and after reinforcing with steel rods,
manufactured fence-posts pillars, slabs,
etc. Since these products lacked the
required strength, they all cracked up
and broke. In another attempt, during
the 1980s the Bharat Gold Mines Ltd
(BGML) supported a S&T project by
the Cement Research Institute of India
(CRII) for manufacture or Portland/
Pozzoland cement by blending
these tailings with high-grade limestone
obtained from Bagalkot in Belgaum
district. Although technically it was
found feasible, the final assessment was
that economically it was not viable for
two reasons:

(1) For each tonne of mill
tailings, four tonnes of high grade limestone
had to be procured from Bagalkot
area and transported over 400 km distance.

(2) All the major constituents like
SiO2, Al2O3, MgO and Fe2O3 were almost
double in percentage compared to

Krishna and Gejji’s contention that
about 20–22 million tonnes of these
tailings has been lost due to denudation
is not correct. The total quantity of tailings
generated during the last 120 years
is about 35 million tonnes and the present
(1999) estimate is 32 million tonnes.
The difference of 4 million tonnes
is accounted for as follows:

(i) Tailings
used for filling voids underground for
sand stowing: during 1956–1980, 1.6
million tonnes2; during 1980–2000, 1.4
million tonnes (BGML source); total,
3.0 million tonnes.

(ii) The balance 1
million tonne may be accounted for

During 1981–1989 about 2,03,500
tonnes of tailing sand found around

Walker’s shaft in the Nundydroog area
was treated and 106 tonnes of scheelite
(tungsten ore) was recovered as a byproduct
by BGML. The mill tailing
sands contain about 0.75 g of
gold/tonne of sand. So during 1986–
1998, BGML treated 3.8 lakh tonnes of
sand and recovered 328 kg of gold by
heap leaching technology. This involved
transportation of sand for 3 km
distance to an uninhabitated area which
in turn created air pollution enroute.
This apart, the cost of other inputs like
labour, power, cement, cyanide, transport,
etc. was prohibitively high and
hence in January 2000 BGML closed
down this plant also, as part of its final
winding-up operations.

Until 1956, all the underground workings
where the gold ore has been extracted,
were being supported by timber
of granite, which was very expensive.
After studying some of the Australian
gold mines, BGML also started making
use of these sands with water to fill up
the stoped-out areas. From 1956 to
2000, BGML used about 3 million tonnes
of sand for supporting the underground
workings. Perhaps, this is the
best use the mill tailings have been put
to so far.

The suggestion of Krishna and Gejji
of making use of these sands for the
manufacturing of hollow bricks, solid
columns, reinforced slabs, an additive
for Portland cement, for manufacture of
stoneware pipes, bottles and bangles,
etc. may not be feasible as these tailing
sands do not possess the required physical
and chemical attributes as specified
for the respective industries.

According to Ganapathi Prabhu3,
BGML under technical guidance, undertook
an afforestation programme on the
tailing dumps, to contain the dispersal
of these sands. Hybrid eucalyptus saplings
were successfully grown after
spreading red-earth and green manure
as foundation on the dumps. With good
care, the saplings grew into adult trees.
The greenery was evident and prevented
the sand from denudation. Since January
2000, the maintenance of these
plantations has been given up by
BGML, as it has wound up all its operations.
Now it is left to the Karnataka
Forest Department to look after these
plantations, to mitigate the environCORRESPONDENCE
mental pollution of the Kolar gold field

About 6 years ago, an Australian
company came up with a project of recovering
the residual gold (0.75 g/
tonne) from the mill tailings by in situ
heap leaching technology. However,
due to the proximity of these dumps to
the dwellings of workers, etc. the project
did not materialize.

Now that BGML has abandoned its
mining and metallurgical operations
since January 2000, there is nothing
anybody can do. The people in and
around Kolar gold fields have to coexist
with the dumps and tolerate its
nuisance until a new solution is found.
The Building Research Institute at Roorkee
may have some answer for the
utilization of these sands.

1. Gowda, A. M. S. and Shenoi, B. V.,
Bharat Gold Mines Ltd (BGML), Centenary
Souvenir, 1980, pp. 43–45.

2. Devaraj, V. G., BGML Centenary Souvenir,
1980, pp. 104–106.

3. Ganapathi Prabhu, K. in National Seminar
on Recent Development in Exploration,
Exploitation of Minerals in India,
Mining, Geological and Metallurgical
Institute of India, 1990, pp. 165–166.

1126, Geetha Road,
Kolar Gold Field 563 122, India


Para 1 of the article by J. V. Subbaraman
confirms the prevalence of environment
pollution hazard. It also
substantiates the same, not only on
the mine workers, but also on the
local population living at a considerable
radius surrounding the mining area,
where the mill tailings are heaped as

Para 2 identifies pneumoconiosis
(lung diseases), which is invariably
associated with the respiratory system
of all living beings. As far back as from
1917, various miners’ diseases resulting
from the gold mining by milling process
are being studied and identified by
the National Institute of Miners’
Health founded at site in the Kolar Gold

Afforestation efforts towards retarding
the environment pollution hazard,
affirm the pollution hazard – a very
expensive scheme, but not yet a permanent
remedy. The major constituents of
the mill tailings being about 55 to 60%
of silica dust and the balance also of
other amphibole minerals, establish the
fact that lung diseases are caused by
inhalation of the silicious dust. (ref:
Souvenir of the 50th year of Independence
– 1997).

Coming to bulk productive utilization
of the tailings, the technical feasibility
of developing the puzzolonic characteristics
is in consonance with our scheme.
Only the research and experimentations
are conducted in the wrong direction by
the Cement Research Institute of India,
with support from Bharat Gold Mines
Ltd, as a S&T project. As far back as in
1974 we had suggested the scheme
for the same, since fast-consumption of
the tailings is the only permanent solution.

The statement that the total mill tailings
generated over the past 120 years
is only 35 million tonnes, of which only
one million tonne is lost by denudation,
is not correct. The historical gold production
data of the Kolar gold mines
are: 51.124 million tonnes of ore are
milled and gold produced is 800.3 tonnes,
as furnished by the Indian Bureau
of Mines for the total period of a little
over 120 years, ending on 31 March

*Satya Sai, 22(A)
S. M. Layout, V Phase,
J. P. Nagar,
Bangalore 560 078, India
†No. 60, BTS Road,
Wilson Garden,
Bangalore 560 027, India



Monday, 25 August 2008

There's more than gold in the kolar mines

When physicists installed nuclear-particle detectors deep in a mine in the Kolar Gold Fields in India, they hoped to measure particles created by highly penetrating neutrinos arriving from cosmic sources. They found instead immense showers of nuclear particles coming, not from above as expected, but from the sides and even below! These huge showers of 1,000 or more assorted particles are called "anomalous cascades." Neutrinos are the only known particles capable of penetrating the entire earth to create upwardly directed showers, but ordinary neutrinos do not seem to have enough energy to give birth to the anomalous cascades.

(Anonymous; "Particle Shower Sprays Upward," Science News, 118:246, 1980.)

Comment. Are there sources of unrecognized radiation deep within the earth?
Science Frontiers #14, Winter 1981. © 1981-2000 William R. Corliss


Friday, 22 August 2008

Seismic Monitoring of Rockbursts and Underground Blastings for Assessing the Stability of Deep Mine Workings at Kolar Gold Fields,

Abstract: Rockbursts (RBs) are known to occur in and around deep mines like Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) in South India, since the beginning of this century. A rockburst is characterised by a sudden collapse of excavated region because of void created during the mining operation. At large depths the problem of RB is quite severe which is a major hazard not only to mining workers, but also to property, both on surface and underground. In order to locate precisely the sources of RBs and also the blastings in the deep mines for investigation and assessment of stability of underground mine workings, current development in seismic recording technique has been used by establishing seismic network with 14 geophones and another microseismic network with 8 high frequency geophones at KGF These systems have been providing accurate information of the strata stability and enabled the mining engineers to assess the safety of mines more reliably. This paper summarises the details of monitoring set-up, analysis of data together with some recent results.


Wednesday, 13 August 2008

Tuesday, 12 August 2008

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Monday, 11 August 2008

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Saturday, 9 August 2008


Champion Reefs is one of the main mining areas in the Kolar Gold Fields in India. The area is situated near Andersonpet in Kolar District. It has got in it the deepest mining shaft in Asia. Once again this place is named after a British officer called Champion. The Kolar Gold Fields is spread around 17 square kilometers and goes as down deep as 17,000 feet. The mines have been closed.

Champion reefs was once dominated by anglo indian foremen miners.

Reginald Gregory was the first chief miner who started the mining project at Champion Reefs, headed by taylor & Sons they soon were able to purchase other mines.


Trivia of Kolar Gold Fields

1 People from as far as Kolar could see the lights of this once prosperous city

2 KGF was known as "Little England" by the British, due to its more temperate weather and a landscape more similar to Britain's. It also had a sizable Anglo-Indian Population who worked in the various mines in different capacities.

3 The city is on the Deccan Plateau of central and south India, about 2891 feet above sea level

4 The Champion Reefs mine was the second deepest underground mine in the world when it was operational.

5 Silicosis, a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, was first identified in KGF

6 National Institute of Miners Health had its headquarters in KGF

7 One can see the old British bungalows and buildings even today in good shape in KGF

8 Mr.K.H.Muniyappa union minister has been successful in reopening this closed mines and giving life to the almost dead city. It is told that it was his election promise.

9 KGF has been in the news recently in connection with the murder of S.Manjunath, the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) manager who was killed for doing his duty. He was from Vivek Nagar.

10 KGF played a major part in the prosperity of the British Empire

11 A collaboration of particle physicists from Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, Osaka City University, Japan and Durham University, UK recorded the first cosmic ray neutrino interaction in an underground laboratory in KGF mines in 1965.

12 KGF also has the distinction of having a Golf course started by the Britisher's dating back to 1885 and affiliated to Indian Golf Union


schools and Colleges in Kolar Gold Fields


KGF has an Engineering College, a Dental College, a few Mining schools and number of good schools.

Important Colleges

1 .The most famous college in the city is K.G.F FIRST GRADE COLLEGE. (F.G.C.)

2. Subhashini women college is also famous and old college.

3. Government job oriented and Pre univercity college at cornatation town.

4. Sri Mahaveer jain college at Robertson Pet

5. Golden Vally Instuate of enggeanring college .

6. Sambarams group’s Hotel management college at BEML Nagar.

7. Sambarams group’s Dental college at Beml Nagar.

8. Noori school of nursing and Paramacy college at Anderson pet.

9. School of Mines at Coromandel post.

10. First grade college at BEML Nagar.

11. St .Mary’s lab technican instuate at Iradiya puram.

12. St .Mary’s Pre universcity college at champion Reef.

13. St. Thearasa Pre univercity college at 3rd cross Robertson Pet.

14. Sambaram group’s nursing college in BEML Nagar.

15. Government Indusrial Training Instuate ( I.T.I ) in BEML Nagar.

16. Law college at Marikuppam.

!7. Bharath Polytechinic at Bangarpet.

Important schools.

1. St. Mary’s school at Champion reef

2. St. Joseph Girls school at Champion reef .

3. St. Thearasa school at Robertson Pet.

4. B.G.M.L. school at Five Lights.

5. Sarvadoiea school at champion reef , next to St. Mary’s School.

6. Sumathi Jain school at Sumathi nagar Robertson pet.

7. Jain school at 1st cross Robertson pet.

8. BEML school at BEML Nagar.

9. Mining Challappa school at Marikuppam.

10. Government Telugu school at marikuppam, Near Rodjes Upstair Block .

11. Sri Nampermal school at Anderson Pet.

12. Noori school at Anderson Pet.

13. Central school at BEML Nagar.

14. William Richard school at champion reef and BEML Nagar.

15. Kamala Nehru school at Oorigaum pet.

16. Mariyas school at Oorigaum, Opp to Railway station.


People and culture of KOLAR GOLD FIELDS

People from many different places are settled in the Kolar Gold Fields Tamil speaking people from the north and south Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu. There are also Telugu speaking people from Kuppam, Ramakuppam, V-kota and other places from Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. So the culture has influence of all three states Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Given the mixture of population, many festivals are celebrated; the most famous and popular one being the Lakshmi Venkateshwara Jaatre and the Mother of Mines Feast is also most famous .The mining hospital has the distinction of being the best hospital in the whole of the Kolar district. A goddess temple (uadendamma kovil ) situated near by the hospital is famous because of the legend that it was built by British personnel. The Hospital is recognized for occupational disease treatment. The Gold Company which is known as Bharat Gold Mines Limited has come out of various combination and permentations. The company has record chairman such as Morarji Desai as chairman of this company and some of the erstwhile chief Ministers of Mystore state as chairmen.

Bharat Earth Movers a premier earth mover manufacturing factory is located in Kolar Gold fields.


Friday, 8 August 2008


Robertsonpet is a township in the city of Kolar Gold Fields in India. It is one of the first planned residential areas in modern-day India. The township was planned and built to accommodate the increasing population of the city of Kolar Gold Fields. The town hall popularly known as King George Hall is lavishly built in Victorian style with an impressive lawn and garden in front of it.


It’s always clever

Hello many of you have heard about the story of a clever Crow which puts some small pieces of stone in a pot to drink water. But this is Crow with a stick.

On August 6th of 2008 around 04:00 PM. I was waiting for Kochivali Express in Bangalore City Railway station a Crow which was in Platform with a 2 feet long stick in his mouth, more then 3 minutes passed suddenly it begins to fly with that stick , while it was flying it started to balance with that stick to fly perfect , it was using many techniques with that small and thin stick like a circus person on a rope it was amazing to see that crow and it went to the roof of the railway platform and started to built his nest .

This shows the confident of that crow while flying, when ever we start something to do we should not drop it unless until we reach the goal, this was a lesson from crow .

Watch the activities of the crow if you get a chance. It will be really interesting.

Crow is always Clever.


History Of Kolar Gold Fields

Gold was first mined in the area in the 2nd and 3rd century AD by the digging of small pits. During the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD the scale of the operation grew, but large-scale mining only came in the 1850s under the British with more manpower and sophisticated machinery. In 1873, M.F. Lavelle, a resident in Bangalore, applied to the Mysore Government for the exclusive privilege of mining in the Kolar district. His request was granted and he commenced operations by sinking a shaft near Urigam (Oorgaum) in 1875, but, finding that large capital would be required he, in the following year and with the approval of the government, transferred all his rights and concessions to the late Major General G. de la Poer Beresford. Major General Beresford formed a syndicate known as the Kolar Concessionaries (now merged into the Gold Fields of Mysore Co.) which took up the matter in earnest, and gradually acquired the area known as the Kolar Gold Fields.

The following were the principal Mines on the Gold Fields in 1905:-
The Mysore Gold Mine; Champion Reef Mine;
Ooregum Mine;
Nundydroog Mine;
Tank Block Mine;
Balaghat Mine;
Gold Fields of Mysore;
Coromandel Mine;
Oriental Mine;
Nine Reefs Mine;
Road Block Mine;
Mysore Reefs Gold Mines.

1) Champion's Reef Mine
Gifford's Shaft (the venue of our adventure! Bang opposite Naional Institute of Rock Mechanics) Tenance Shaft
Glen Shaft
One Shaft
2) Marikuppam Mine
Yadgar Shaft
Petrikal Shaft
Oncock Shaft
3) Ooregaum Mine
Two Shaft
Bullion Shaft
Main Shaft
4) Koromandal / Coromandel Mine
Henry Shaft
5) Golkunda Mine

Research on the Cornish connection with the Kolar Goldfields has only recently commenced , the following is a brief account of the information collected to date.

In 1873 a Mr. M.F. Lavelle, a resident in Bangalore, applied to the Government for the mining rights within the Kolar District with the intention of finding coal. His request was granted and he commenced operations by sinking a shaft in 1875, near Oorgaum. Finding that greater capital would be required to carry out the work he transferred all his rights and concessions to a syndicate formed by Colonel Beresford and known as the Kolar Concessionaires. By 1881 the Concessionaires had secured the services of Messrs. John Taylor & Sons, a firm of mining Engineers in London who had been involved in the management, amongst many other mining operations, of the Real del Monte Company in Mexico from the 1820's to its winding up in 1840.

It would appear that Cornish involvement in the Goldfields probably commenced around this time and was no doubt promoted by John Taylor & Co's connection with and knowledge of the Cornish hard rock miners.

Details of the European employees in 1905 include a predominance of Cornish surnames both at the mines and within the Kalor Goldfield Volunteers.

1905 Under the Commander-in-Chief in India: formed by G.G.O. 639 of 1903

Motto - "Defence not Defiance" Badge - Crossed Pickaxe and Hammer

Honorary Colonel - Richard Hancock , Esq Lieutenant-Colonel - Thomas Edward Piercey,

Commandant Majors - G.A. Paterson , C.H. Richards Captains - E. Jeffery , R.H.P. Bullen ,

F.J. Tregay , Percy Key , H.M. Leslie ,

H.T. Hincks , D. Gill Jenkins ,

J. Johns Lieutenants - G.W. Walker

W.R.C. Beudon ,

T.A. Clarke ,

N.F.K. Richards ,

W. Ward ,

H.M.A. Cooke ,

G.E. Payne ,

A.W. Jolly ,

C.H. Stonor 2nd Lieutenants - J.J. Clarke ,

R.F. Vaughan ,

H.H. Osborn ,

J.S. Anderson ,

W.C. Vine ,

R.T.J. Weeks Staff - Adjutant - Capt. F.G. Pierce , 69th Punjabies;

Medical Officer - Surgn,-Maj. T.J. O'Donnell;

Hony. Chaplains - Rev. L.G. Pollard ,

Rev. J.H. Fraysse; Hony, Major - Edgar Taylor ,

Quarter Master - Hony. Lt. G.W. Bickley Surgeon Lt. J.D. O'Donnell Sergeant-Major -- H.W.

Goble ,

Oorgaum Sergt.-Instructors - A. Goldfinch , L. Taylor ,

R. Motley , 1st Essex, Officiating, Gold Fields Qr. Mr. Sergeant - D.A. Spence , Chanpion Reef

Until the year 1902 all the machinery in the Mines was worked by steam power, but in August 1902 the completion of the Cauvery Power Works, brought about a complete revolution in the working of most of the Mines on the Fields, where by 4000 H.P. of electric energy is transmitted to the Gold Fields from the Cauvery Falls Power Station received at an elaborate Transformer House centrally situated and distributed to the various mines in quantities contracted for and by the means of this electric power the majority of the mines work their milling and stamping machinery.

The Kolar Gold Field water Supply Scheme was completed in 1901-1902. The water was drawn from the Bettamangala and Ramasagram tanks. Rotertsonpet suburb was established around 1901, and the name was given by the then H.H. the Maharaja in commemoration of the memory of Sir Donald Robertson, KCSI, late Resident in Mysore, on 15th August 1903. In the same year Kolar Gold Fields established a Corps known as the Kolar Gold Fields Volunteers, and earlier part of the Bangalore Rifle Volunteers . The Corps had its Head Quarters at Oorgaum.

In Oorgaum, there was a Kolar Gold Field Club and Kolar Gold Fields Library in a building called Oorgaum Hall. In 1905, S.M. Pritchard (the Clubs Hon. Secy), H.H. Osborn (H. Treasurer), with R.R. Rodda. G.H. Burnell (Secy & Librarian), Committee members P. Bosworth-Smith, H.M.A. Cooke, Rev. L.G. Pollard.

Some of the schools that existed then were Kolar Gold Field School,
Nundydoog Mines (1901),
St. Joseph's Convent Girl's School (Order of St. Joseph of Tarbes), Champion Reef,
St. Thomas School. One of the bigger public instutions was The Kolar Gold Field Gymkhana Club, which hosted a Polo, Golf and Hockey team.


St. Paul's Church (S.P.G. COE), which was shared with a Tamil congregation, the services at different times.

Wesleyan Mission, English and Tamil congregations.

St. Thomas' School Chapel (National Church of India)

Lutheran Mission, Tamil congregation at RobertsonpetRoman Catholic Churches,

Our Lady of Victories (Champion Reef), which also covered St. Mary's Anglo-Vernacular School. St. Sebastion (Coromandal) Entertainment was provided by the Kolar Gold Fields Choral and Dramatic Society, and for the souls of many, the Royal Army Temperance Association was available.

.... Some Notes ... KOLAR GOLD FIELDS. (KARNATAKA) This little mining town, about 22 kms, east of Bangalore, was once the pride of the erstwhile Mysore state, and also that of India. This gold mine produced a sizeable amount of gold during the days of the British Raj. It employed nationals from Britain, Italy, Germany and also a good number of Angto -Indians. The entire labour force in those days, were the Tamils from the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu, who were the best preferred for their honesty, ability to work hard and with no ties to labour unions.

As the years rolled by, and the gold reserves diminished, coupled with the freedom struggle, the Expatriates began to leave the mines, though the British, who owned the mines still, held on to key positions. Anglo-indians were the next favoured kind and they took over many Administrative & , Managerial posts. Meanwhile the school of mines which was then started began to produce some good Indian Miners & Engineers, who were soon absorbed into Managerial levels on the mines.

By this time the Central Government took over the Mines from the British and later handed over the Mines to the State Government. Gold reserves dwindled and the once prosperous Gold Mine showed signs of decline. Emigration was now in the air and the Anglo-indians were leaving India to greener pastures in large numbers. Some to U.K., some to Canada, Australia, New Zealand and even to some countries in Europe. The skilled personal left to the Gold Mines in Ghana, West Africa.

Talking of Kolar Gold Fields brings back old memories of the social life there, in those days. With four or five Clubs with facilities for Tennis, Billiards & Snooker (skittles on Sundays) and even a separate Golf Club, life was something very did@rent. The frequent Dances and social functions were something to be witnessed to believe. Come December, the whole place will be humming with activity. Dances, Christmas Trees, Gifts for children in all these Clubs, were the highlights of this festive season. Many from Bangalore would also come to these Dances at Kolar Gold Fields.

Well Kolar Gold Fields is no longer the same, economically and socially. The posh Bungalows have been divided and sub-divided to accommodate more familes. The glass panes in the windows have been replaced by plywood when broken and the walls have not seen paint for quiet awhile. The then renowned KGF Club, which once was out of bounds for the Indians, is failing to bits The brass door handles, knobs and hinges have all gone. The highly polished floorboards have not seen wax for a few decades. The sterling silver cutlery which were specially ordered fcom 'the U. K for the Club's Restaurant with the emblem of the Club on it have all disappeared. There is not even cold beer on a summers Sunday morning to quench ones thirst.

It is sad but that is an end of an era.

This writeup above from Kolar Gold Field Rifle Volentreers is by Mr. Valentine. He is a member of the Institute of Engineers and also a member of the Institute of Engineering Designers of U.K He started his career as a draftsman in KG. F in 1960. He went to Ghana in West Africa in 1974 and was later promoted as senior Design Engineer in the Gold Mines of Ashanti After 12 years abroad he has settled in Bangalore, India, and is now working in a Design & Drafting Section of an Engineering Project Management Firm, as a Manager.

Birth of the city

The local Kannada speaking villagers refused to work in the deep pits of the mines and so people from the North and South Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu were settled around the various Shafts and a city was born.

Even today places in the area have names reminiscent of the presence of British people there - the two main towns Robertsonpet and Andersonpet being named after two British officers in the mines.


There is a legend about why the Kolar Gold Fields are so full of gold. The story goes back to the Tretha Yuga, the time of Lord Rama. During his 14 years of vanavasa, Rama along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana wandered through the dense forests of the present day Avani village, which is about 10 miles from the gold fields, where they set up their hut and lived. Surpanaka, sister of Ravana, one day happened to see Rama and asked him to marry her. He refused, as he was already married, so she approached Lakshmana, who got angry with her and cut off her nose

Ravana was angry when he heard what had happened to his sister and he wanted to take revange on Rama. He sent Maricha in the disguise of a golden deer to the hut where Rama was living and Sita was so attracted to the golden deer that she asked Rama to get it for her. The deer, being a magical one, eluded Rama for a long time until they reached what is today the Kolar Gold Fields. Meanwhile Lakshamana, worried about his brother, went in search of Rama, leaving Sita alone in the hut. Ravana, in the disguise of a sage, abducted Sita, taking advantage of the situation. Rama finally managed to kill the golden deer and according to the legend, the remains of the deer spread over a large area, which is the reason for presence of gold in KGF.


Tamil and Kannada are widely spoken by the people here apart from Telugu which is spoken by a substantial group of people. Three hundred thousand people lived in the Kolar Gold Fields at its peak production, but since the closing of mines in 2003 the population has reduced to less than a hundred thousand. Signboards are displayed predominantly in Kannada, Tamil and English all over KGF, and it is a bilingual town where people can speak two languages at ease.

More then 90% of peoples speak Tamil language.

This city has more number of churches ,most of them are Christians.



Kolar Gold Fields (KGF)

Kolar Gold Fields (KGF) was one of the major gold mines in India and is located in the Kolar district in Karnataka, close to the city of Bangalore. It was closed in 2003 due to reducing deposits and increasing costs. The mine is considered the world's second deepest gold mine. KGF is 102 kilometers ( 63.4 miles ) away from Bangalore, there is Rail route and Road route from Bangalore to KGF. Nearest Airport is Bangalore International Airport and Chennai International Airport,there is road way and railway to KGF from Chennai.

Kolar Gold Fields is called as Little Londen by Britiesh people.